Development of Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signals (MAPS) for Blind Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections
People with vision impairment have different perception and spatial cognition as compared to the sighted people. Blind pedestrians primarily rely on auditory, olfactory, or tactile feedback to determine spatial location and find their way. They generally have difficulty crossing intersections due to lack of traffic information at intersections. Among the intersection crossing sub-tasks, locating crosswalk, determining when to cross and maintaining alignment to crosswalk while crossing are the most difficult tasks for the blind and visually impaired. To understand how the blind pedestrians make safe crossing decisions, ten blind and low-vision individuals were interviewed. The purpose of these interviews was to understand the types of information they use while making safe intersection crossings and identify new information types that could assist them. A Mobile Accessible Pedestrian Signals (MAPS) prototype was developed to support decision making at signalized intersections. The MAPS integrates sensors on a Smartphone, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth technologies, and traffic signal controllers were developed to provide intersection geometry information and Signal Phasing and Timing (SPaT) to pedestrians who are blind at signalized intersections. A single-tap command on the Smartphone screen allows users to request for intersection geometry information, such as street name, direction and number of lanes at a corner of an intersection. A double-tap input while pointing toward desired direction of crossing will confirm the crossing direction, request for pedestrian phase, and the Smartphone application will then wirelessly request for signal timing and phasing information from traffic signal controller.